Infants 4-6 months of age
Early Learning Tools/Resources: For Families, Caregivers and Early Learning Educators
Many parents and caregivers, as well as teachers and early learning providers, are eager for information and resources on how to connect with babies and toddlers, manage young children's behavior, and help children develop relationships, regulate their behavior and emotions, and talk about their feelings. When the adults in children's lives have appropriate expectations of children's development at different ages, they have greater success—and much less frustration—with young children. Click the arrow button above to learn more.
* The following topics are some ways to engage in meaningful interactions with the infants and toddlers in your care.
Enaganging in meaning Interaction to drive your babys development and emotional security
Virtually every aspect of early human development, from the brains evolving circuitry to the child's capacity for empathy, is affected by the environments and experiences that are encountered in a cumulative fashion, beginning early in the prenatal period and extending throughout the early childhood years. Early experiences shape development and influence children's continued progress along positive pathways.
Young babies need the security of a parent’s arms, and they understand the reassurance and comfort of your voice, tone and emotions. Consider the following as ways to foster emotional security of your newborn:
• Hold your baby face-to-face and make eye contact.
• Talk to your baby with a soothing, animated voice throughout the day while dressing, bathing, feeding or playing with your baby.
• Sing to your baby.
• Give your baby rattles and soft toys with different sounds.
• Let your baby hear different sounds (for example, wind chime, ticking clock, soft music or music box).
• Show your baby bright pictures of black and white images.
• Hang a mobile with bright objects above your baby.
• Call your baby by name.
• Hold your baby during feedings and provide comfort when he or she is distressed and cuddling when happy.
How can I help increase my baby’s development and emotional security?
Consider the following as ways to foster the emotional security of your baby:
• Repeat sounds and smile when your baby makes sounds.
• Laugh with your baby.
• Talk to and imitate your baby during feeding, dressing, changing diapers and bath time.
• Spend time on the floor playing with your child every day.
• Dance with your baby and do other rhythmic movements.
• Introduce your baby to other children and parents.
• Place safe toys near your baby to encourage reaching and grasping.
• Encourage laughing and play by making funny faces or sounds or blowing on baby’s belly and laughing.
• Play peek-a-boo games to help develop object permanence, the understanding that objects are still present even though they cannot be seen.
• Show your baby bright picture books and interesting objects.
• Show your baby his or her reflection in a mirror.
• Read books and stories to your baby, and point out pictures.
• Take your baby outside to see new things and people.
• Hold your baby for feedings and cuddle when he or she is awake.
• Hold and comfort your baby when he or she is unhappy.
What can my baby do at this age?
This age is very social and babies begin moving in much more purposeful ways. While babies may progress at different rates, the following are some of the common milestones your baby may reach in this age group:
• Grasp, Moro, root and tonic neck reflexes (reflexes normally present in young infants) disappear
• Balances head well
• Sits with support, back is rounded
• Begins to support body with legs when held in standing position
• Rolls from back to front and front to back by 6 months
• Moves object from one hand to other
• Grabs feet and toes when lying on back
• Makes “swimming” motions with arms and legs when placed on abdomen
• Begins drooling (not always a sign of teething)
• Naps two to three times a day, for one to three hours each (on average)
• Begins to sleep longer at night (six to eight hours consistently)
• Has full color vision, able to see at longer distances
What can my baby say?
It is very exciting for parents to watch their babies become social beings that can interact with others. While every baby develops speech at his or her own rate, the following are some of the common milestones in this age group:
• Coos and gurgles when talked to, or in response to toys
• Babbles, imitates sounds
• By 6 months, makes single syllable sounds (da, ma, ba)
• Blows bubbles
What does my baby understand?
A baby’s awareness of people and surroundings increases during this time and he or she may begin to interact with persons other than parents. While babies may progress at different rates, the following are some of the common milestones in this age group:
• Recognizes familiar things and people
• May hold out arms to be picked up
• Begins to learn concept of object permanence (i.e., a partially hidden object under a blanket is still there)
• May show displeasure when object or person goes away
• May recognize his or her own name
• May begin to understand “no”
• Begins to understand cause and effect (the sound a toy makes when it is dropped)